Liigu sisu juurde

Pärast linna vallutamist alustasid hispaanlased laialdaste ehitustöödega, mille jaoks saadi suur osa ehituskividest kohalike ehitiste lammutamisest. Enne inkade megaliitseid ehitisi olid seal juba vanema kultuuri Killke rajatised ees. Õhtuti ja suuremate pidustuste ajal on tänavad täis erinevaid toidukärusid, millel pakutakse grill-liha, mereande, juurikaid, suppe ning magusat — churrodest käsitööjäätiseni. The difference between the uppermost and the lowest terrace can be as great as fifteen degrees. Siin toimus ka ainukene teadaolev suur lahing, kus inkad võidutsesid hispaania konkistadooride üle.

All of it creates a chaotic but incredibly energetic atmosphere which last all night long. As a symbol of wealth there is also a tradition to wear yellow during the last day of the year. Sacred Valley, the name that Incas gave this place, recognizing its magnificence and importance.

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On one side of the valley there sits Cusco and a small historical village Pisac. Fertile land, good climate, and the proximity to the capital gave Urubamba valley an important purpose in the empire.

It maintains it even today. Standing on an elevated position with a view along the sun-soaked valley feeling the soft wind that gently moves corn cobs on the bottom you can see that most of the mountain walls are covered by the highlight of Incan engineering — agricultural terraces.

One of the more unique places in the Sacred Valley are Moray terraces that on the first glance reminded me a huge amphitheater. However, these were Incan experimental agricultural laboratories.

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Approximately 30 meters deep, this construction creates a distinctive micro climate on each terrace. The difference between the uppermost and the lowest terrace can be as great as fifteen degrees. This was the place to test various plants from different environments.

The soil on each terrace was brought to Moray from diverse locations from all over the empire. It feels like Sacred Valley has been entangled in several hundred years in the past. This is apparent in local life and culture.

People speak Quechua, grow corn and quinoa, sow vibrant textiles, and brew chicha. A serene peace floats over the valley that can only be experienced in some unique spiritual locations in the world. An hour from Cusco following long and serpentine road there lies a town of Pisac.

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A sleepy settlement that has transformed into a Mecca of alternative medicine and spiritual journeys in South-America. However, there is plenty to do around Pisac if discovering your inner self and connecting to Pachamama is not on your priority list. Honestly, the most crowded day in Pisac is Sunday. Then surrounding farmers and artisans come to town market, which is the main handicraft market in the area.

The every-day small peaceful market transforms into a crowded, colourful, and multilingual site. Behind long stalls stand brightly dressed Quechua women and invite you to try on a pretty scarf or a gaudy poncho, check out some jewellery or small souvenirs. After visiting several stalls, I came to realisation, most of the sellers offer the same things. Therefore, you should keep an eye out for the prices and not be afraid to haggle.

This lesser known story starts with Wiracocha sending out his four sons and four daughters from Pacaritambo mountain to find a suitable place for a new capital. Brothers and sisters who were also married to each other received a golden staff that was supposed to sink in the ground at a right place. Ayar Cachi, the eldest one whose powerful slingshots could crush mountain tops and generate thunder in the sky made his siblings jealous. Together they deviously decided to lock him in a cave.

The neighbour might offer the same things for lower or even half the price. Ruins of Pisac On the other side of the Sacred Valley there is one of the oldest consistently inhabited villages in South America and one of the best-preserved Incan ruins in Peru.

This small town is in fact a busy transport hub. The train and busses to Aguas Calientes and further to Machu Picchu depart from here. Ollantaytambo was built by Pachacuti, the same emperor whose statue crowns the fountain in Plaza de las Armas in Cusco. Ollantaytambo, like Cusco, was already habited by a small group of people before Incas reached this place.

This was a tribe of Keha Slim Herbal New Pack worshipers and they left behind an interesting and complex watering system and beautiful altars that have survived until today.

The distinctiveness of Ollantaytambo is noticeable from war away. These monumental ruins differ from any other historical sites in Sacred Valley. Firstly, the farming terraces are much higher and wider than anywhere else. Secondly, the ruins sit on top of a smaller mountain that is visible from far away. Strategical location and unique architecture have lead the historians to believe that Ollantaytambo had a military purpose.

As it happens, this is also the location of the only known instance where Incan army beat Spanish conquistadores. Incas had a perfect view of the whole valley and the wide terraces functioned as defensive structures, making an already difficult uphill battle nearly impossible. The strategic decision to flood the valley also turned Spanish cavalry into a useless burden.

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However, Ollantaytambo was abandoned not long Keha Slim Herbal New Pack the battle. There is a substantial amount of unfinished building materials lying around the ruins.

Ghostly monolithic stones standing and lying as waiting for the workers to set them up, small stones half carved, smoothed and half rough and raw, lone walls marking where a house or a temple should be. If Incas had the chance to complete the work, Ollantaytambo would challenge Machu Picchu for the most magnificent temples in the empire. Six massive blocs that make up Loomingulised kaalulangusprobleemid wall of supposed Sun temple are a great evidence for this.

Each stone weighs more than fifty tons. Most of building material for Ollantaytambo was brought here from a quarry seven kilometres away and Incas did not have horses or any other animals, who would have helped carrying these. The symbols carved on the stone created interesting shadows on the wall which were then interpreted by shamans on the certain days of the year to make predictions for the future weather, crops, and much more.

Maras salt mines are located near the village of Moray some fifty kilometres north east from Cusco. This, centuries old town is like a weird paradox for such a touristy place in Peru. There are no visitors here, no souvenir shops, no restaurants and no hotels. Group carrying busses do not stop here but drive fast through the town. We accidentally stayed here for a night when hiking from Maras to Moray.

Looking back now, this is also why Moray village etched itself so clearly in my memory. It was a place devoid of catering towards tourism, people did not mind them there, but they did not really let themselves be bothered by foreigners as well. It was a small window into Andean lifestyle that I had been looking for.

Our evening there was the most memorable. A group of people gathered on the small square to watch local dancers, eat traditional food, and drink chicha that was still made in the Incan way. People enjoyed spending time with each other.

For me the most vivid place still are the salt ponds of Maras. This natural wander is created by a small stream of extremely salty water. Locals directed the stream in such a way that water is collected in small ponds through a complex watering system. Shallow ponds slowly fill up and daily heat with sunlight vaporize the water leaving a lot of salt on the walls and the bottom of the ponds. Then locals gather it and use it in various ways.

Collecting salt in such a way for centuries has transformed Maras into a fantastic landscape.

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Salt crystals covered pond walls mirror back the sunlight while breaking it into a kaleidoscopic light show. Various size ponds where salt white and clay brown mix cover the valley like a patchwork blanket. Local workers balance themselves on narrow roads and planks without paying attention to tourists.

Anyone living in this region can claim rights to one of the salt ponds. The best and oldest ones are inherited, and newcomers are given locations in the bottom of the valley. The longer you are living in the community the better are your chances of getting a better pond. If nobody takes care of their site or people are not interested in their inheritance, the pond is given to a new family.

I could not hold myself back and I had a sip of the water. Immediately I felt a burning sensation in my mouth, my eyes started watering, and I started coughing violently.

For safe consummation one can buy a small bag of Maras salt in the souvenir stalls set up around the entrance. On my last day in Cusco I gave some gifts to San Blas market ladies who looked after me during this month with their delicious juices and feast like sandwiches.

My next destination was Bolivia and when I looked back to my time in Peru, Cusco and Sacred Valley were truly the places where one can experience everything that this incredible country has to offer. Inkadel on oma rahva kohta põnev loomismüüt. Vähetuntud jutt pajatab kuidas loojajumal Wiracocha saatis oma neli poega ja neli tütart Pacaritambo mäest meie maailma, et leida sobilik paik pealinna ehitamiseks.

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Õed ja vennad, kes olid ka omavahel abielus, said kaasa kuldse saua, mis pidi linnale sobivas kohas maa sisse vajuma. Ayar Cachi, vanim ja tugevaim poegadest, kelle linguvisked panid taeva mürisema ning hävitasid mägesid, tekitas teistes kadedust. Vennad lukustasid ta kavaluse abil koopasse.

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Ayar Cachi on siiamaani vangis ning inkad pajatavad, et tema raevuhood tekitavad maavärinaid. Teised õed-vennad rändasid edasi, aga aastaid hiljem polnud nad ikka leidnud õiget kohta. Ühel päeval jõudsid nad hiiglasliku koopa ette. Sissepääsu ees seisis suurejooneline kivist iidol.

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Koos otsustati koopasse palvetama minna, kuid Ayar Uchu tahtis enne esitada kujule väljakutse. Iidolit puudutanud, hakkas ta kivistuma. Enne täielikku moondumist suutis vend paluda ülejäänuid, et nad teda kord aastas mälestaksid. Huarachico, püha millega tähistatakse noore mehe täisikka jõudmist ongi pühendatud Ayar Uchule.

Pika rännaku tulemusel kasvasid kolmandale vennale, Ayar Aucale tiivad.

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Nendega lendas ta kaugemale kui teised kõndisid. Oma uhkuses ja kiirustades lendas ta üle La Pampa del Soli — päikese maja. Sinna kõrvale maandudes muutus ka tema kiviks. Ayar Manco, ainus alles-jäänud vend rändas koos õdedega edasi. Järgmises puhkekohas asetas ta saua enda kõrvale maha ning kõigi üllatuseks vajus see maa sisse. Sinna rajati inkade pealinn Cusco, mis ketšua keeles tähendab maailma naba. Ayar Mancost sai inkade esimene valitseja Manqu Qhapaq. Olin siia sattunud detsembri alguses ja plaan oli veeta pühadeaeg Peruu turistirohkeimas linnas.

Peale vaadates ei jää kesklinnas inkadest kohe väga palju silma. Tänavapilti ilustab Hispaania kolonialistlik arhitektuur — siledad heledad kahe- või kolmekorruselised majaseinad, mida kaunistavad kaunilt nikerdatud puust rõdud ning barokselt rikkalikud uksed.

Cusco keskväljak Plaza de las Armas on nii turistide kui kohalike lemmik kogunemispaik.

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Väljaku keskel ilutseb uhke purskkaev, mille kohal kõrgub inkade üheksanda valitseja Pachacuti kuldne skulptuur. Tema võimu ajal algas inkade suur ekspansioon üle kogu Lõuna-Ameerika lääne-kalda ning kuningriigist kasvas impeerium.

Väljaku ühel pool domineerib Cusco katedraal, mis on ehitatud hispaanlaste poolt hävitatud Wiracocha templi varemetele. Selle gooti ja renessansi stiilis pühakoja suurus mõjub rõhuvalt. Vaatamata portaali uhkest dekoratsioonist jääb seda piirava kahe massiivse torni lihtsast arhitektuurist kirikule tagasihoidlikum mulje.

Katedraali ees olevatele laiadele trepiastmetele koguneb iga päev suur hulk rahvast: kes võtab aja maha ja naudib ilma, kes saab sõpradega kokku, kes vurab istujate vahel ning müüb turistidele suveniire — see pilt kerkib mu silme ette, kui keegi mainib Cuscot.

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Väljaku teisel küljel asub Jesuiitide Jeesuse Vennaskonna kirik. Katedraali terava vastandina mõjub see kõrge ehitis kergelt ja suursuguselt.

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Oma vapustavalt dekoratiivse fasaadiga, kõrgaltarit meenutava portaaliga, luksuslikult ilustatud tornidega, paarissammaste ja rohkete pilastritega on Jeesuse Vennaskonna kirik Lõuna-Ameerika parimaid hispaania baroki näiteid.

Plaza de las Armas Cuscos kõndides ja neidsamu kolonialistlikke maju vaadates võib tähelepanelikum huviline märgata, et teatud hoonetel on veider välimus. Maja alumine pool on justkui inkade tempel, laotud suurtest tumedatest siledatest mitmetahulistest kividest, ja nende peale oleks kui asetatud lõuna-euroopalik maja.

Pärast linna vallutamist alustasid hispaanlased laialdaste ehitustöödega, mille jaoks saadi suur osa ehituskividest kohalike ehitiste lammutamisest.

Nendest laoti majade vundamendid ning alumised korrused. Vanalinnas võib komistada paarile tänavale, kus üllatab kontrast. On niiskuskindel, hingav, paindlik, mürgine, mitte-imavast ja palju muid eeliseid Ulostaa suureneda või eritumist õliga rakendamisel on esimene aeg, ärge muretsege.

Juua päevas 8 tassi vett ml tassi kohtaon soovitatav toksiini heakskiidu. Söömine rasvase toidu või vürtsikas slim patch kasutamisel.

Magnet salendav plaaster

Teha aeroobsed harjutused pool tundi päevas, aitab teil saada hea salenemist tulemus. Tianjin kingson tehnoloogia teadus Co. Villarreal, Seth A. Here, we present a crystallographic structure of the wild-type Synechococcus elongatus KaiB and a cryo-electron microscopy cryoEM structure of a KaiBC complex. The crystal structure shows the expected dimer core structure and significant conformational variations of the KaiB C-terminal region, which is functionally important in maintaining rhythmicity.

Villarreal, Seth A. Here, we present a crystallographic structure of the wild-type Synechococcus elongatus KaiB and a cryo-electron microscopy cryoEM structure of a KaiBC complex.